The Essentials of Journalism

This collection of guides explains the basic principles and elements of good journalism.

The Hierarchy of Accuracy

Some facts, quotes, assertions and color are more reliable than others.

The stuff that comes from an eyewitness is better than that which is second-hand.

The stuff that you know for yourself is better than the stuff someone else supposedly checked out … or did they?

This idea was crystallized by Mike Oreskes when he was Washington bureau chief of The New York Times. He said that as he looked back at the lessons of the Monica Lewinsky scandal for the Times, he thought the most important was, “Do your own work.”
Beware of the idea that you have to post a story because it’s “out there” — floating around.

In a sense, Oreskes is suggesting a hierarchy of verification. At the top of that is the stuff you have verified yourself — from sources with direct knowledge — and they are better than sources who do not have direct knowledge.

The Times, as an example, had a “third party witness” story in the Lewinsky scandal. It was slated to go. The paper was laid out. It was 6 p.m. Early edition deadline was getting close.

The reporters who had worked the story, one of whom was John Broder, walked into Oreskes’ office and said, “Mike, we have been thinking this through, and we realized our sources are second-hand. They are not the people who saw the president and Lewinsky together. At best they are people who talked to people who saw them together … We really wonder if that is good enough to call the president a liar.”

Oreskes called New York and said he thought they should hold the story. New York argued with him. The editors said, “you know this story is going to get out.” But Oreskes held firm, under significant pressure.

It was a pivotal moment. Not only was the third party witness story wrong, it became a turning point in the Times’ coverage. Editors, moreover, were grateful for Oreskes’ decision and thereafter stuck more closely to what The Times could verify for itself with first-hand sources.

Taking this even further, there is a hierarchy of what can be proved in a more general sense.

You can argue that journalism is first concerned with the more external world. The president said these words. The car came from this direction and hit the other car here.

Here journalism is on pretty solid ground.

The more interior world — which includes things such as motive (why did the president say these words, why did the government choose this policy, or why did Osama bin Laden hate America) — is necessarily more speculative.

Verification and accuracy

A journalist’s first job is to “get it right.” But how? These guides help you understand how to think about accuracy and practice verification.

All Guides

Journalism Essentials: Introduction

What makes journalism different than other forms of communication?

What is the purpose of journalism?

The elements of journalism

What does a journalist do?

The journalist as a ‘committed observer’

The theory of the interlocking public

The lost meaning of ‘objectivity’

Understanding bias

Tools to manage bias

Journalism as a discipline of verification

The Hierarchy of Accuracy

The Hierarchy of Information and concentric circles of sources

The Protess Method of verification

What makes a good story?

Good stories are important and interesting

Boring versus engaging stories – what’s the difference?

Good stories prove their relevance to the audience